The Four Immeasurables in the Bodhisattvabhūmi and Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra and their Implementation in a Measuring Scale for a Study of Brain Imaging
Huimin Bhikshu (釋惠敏)

        Firstly, this paper discusses the connotation of the Four Immeasurables (catvāry apramāṇāni) in the Bodhisattvabhūmi and Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra. The conclusion is as follows: These two texts approach the four immeasurable states of mind from two different points of view, and based on the three categories of sentient beings, the immeasurables of kindness, compassion, and empathic joy arise accordingly when one is faced with sentient beings in states of neither-pain-nor-pleasure (kindness), pain (compassion), and pleasure (empathic joy) respectively. On the other hand, delusion, hatred, and greed can also be aroused when one is faced with these three kinds of states (neither-pain-nor-pleasure, pain, and pleasure). Consequently, bodhisattvas generate a strong intention (adhyāśaya) - the mind state of equanimity, the fourth immeasurable - to guide these three categories of sentient beings to abandon defilements. This interpretation goes beyond the traditional definition of the Four Immeasurables in earlier Buddhist thought.
        Secondly, based on the aforementioned conclusion, in order to develop a measuring scale and study the brain imaging measurements of fMRI/DIT, we surveyed some relevant papers, and we found that there are five questions or topics which need to be discussed between Buddhists and researchers in psychological studies and neurosciences in the future.

        首先,本論文討論《菩薩地》與《大乘莊嚴經綸》對於四無量心( catvāry apramāṇāni)的解釋特色,有如下的結論:此兩個文獻以三聚有情為對象,分 A 面向:因應「三聚(無苦無樂、有苦、有樂)有情」,依序產生「慈、悲、喜」三種無量心。 B 面向:對於「三聚有情」,依序容易產生三種(癡、瞋、貪)煩惱,因此菩薩產生引導此三類有情遠離煩惱之增上意樂(行相)來說明「捨」的心態,這與傳統的定義不同。
        其次,從上述的結論,為發展心理學量表與功能性磁振造影儀( Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging system for human brain,簡稱 fMRI)或擴散張量影像( Diffusion Tensor Imaging , 簡稱 DTI)腦影像研究,我們評析一些相關論文,發現有五個議題值得佛學界與心智科學界繼續探討。