Immeasurable Devices: Their Treatment in the Damoduoluo chanjing and Further Distillation in Japanese Zen
Michel Mohr (米歇爾.莫爾)

        This article discusses the "four immeasurable minds" from a range of perspectives beginning with their standard description in an early fifth-century meditation treatise called the Dámóduōluó Chánjīng 達摩多羅禪經. After mentioning the only comprehensive commentary on the Chanjing by the Japanese Rinzai teacher Tōrei Enji 東嶺圓慈 (1721-92), it argues that one of Tōrei's major insights into the significance of the immeasurables is their role as devices pushing the mind to overcome its discursive limitations. Eventually, this piece moves beyond Tōrei's interpretation to engage in a broader conversation about the implications of the four immeasurables for us here and now. It suggests that the Chanjing sheds light onto early practices at the juncture between Indian and Chinese Buddhism, and could lead to reexamine the links between traditional sources and contemporary meditation practices. The immeasurables could even serve as a focal point for bracketing sectarian or national differences between Buddhist traditions. Furthermore, the various levels at which these devices are understood and translated into action provide tools for engaging communities beyond scholarly circles because of their crucial ethical implications.

        本文從多個視點討論四無量心,首先從五世紀初的禪修典籍《達摩多羅禪經》的標準描述談起。文章論及《禪經》唯一的注釋書——日本臨濟宗禪師東嶺圓慈( 1721–92)的著作,主張東嶺對四無量之意義有一個重要洞見:它們扮演著某種法門能夠讓心克服論理的局限。最後,本文跨出東嶺的詮釋,進入更廣闊的對話,涉及四無量對此時此地的我們的意涵。本文認為《禪經》讓我們了解印度佛教與中國佛教交流時的早期實踐,也讓我們重新檢示傳統典籍與當代禪修實踐的聯結。四無量可以作為一個焦點,用來釐清佛教傳統間派系或國家性的差異。再者,由於這些法門具有重要的倫理意涵,對四無量不同程度的理解與付諸實踐,可以協助我們讓學界以外的社群產生興趣。